FAX (Facsimile Telegraphy) - Facsimile telegraphy deals with the transmission of typewritten or handwritten message , drawings , graphics , pictures or any matter which cannot be sent through telegraphs , telephones or teleprinters.This machine operates by converting the variances of light reflected from the image of the original matter into electrical impulses which can be reconverted onto the image from on reception . Connections can be made over very long distances using the public telephone networks or radio links. Fax is perhaps the speediest system presently available and transmitting and receiving a standard letter size document takes approximately four minutes, irrespective of the amount of matter on it. In this system there is no scope for copying errors and so high order skills required at high skills. Even typed matter can be transmitted more effectively through fax than through the teleprinter since the former completely does away with the element of checking for errors inadvertently incorporated during transmittal of the matter.
ELECTRONIC MAIL (E-Mail) - This , too is a progeny of computer technology. It facilities the transmittal of messages through the use of computer storage and computer inter-links , thus eliminating postal delays. The message is simply keyed into the system. The signals, converted into digital pulses are stored in the computer's memory for retrieval. The message can be retrieved at the recipient's convenience. Thus apart from being time saving , electronic mail is a more convenient and unobtrusive method of sending a message as the sender can be sure of not disturbing the recipient. In close inhouse communication, links are established either by the CPU of computer network internet workstations.
Teleconferencing - Usually, group communication takes place in person, in the same room, but new technology provides a facility for discussion with a group of persons on the internet. You can conduct a meeting,hold a group discussion or brief people scattered across the country or around the World. You can consult a number of experts through computers using group decision support systems for their views before making a decision or for finalising a plan of action. In teleconferencing , the attention is focused on the idea or concept that is being communicated. This is the advantage of the method but sometimes this overemphasis on the message with a corresponding neglect of the person communicating it,may not fully in tune with the corporate culture,which needs a dynamic medium of communication.
It is an arrangement which facilitates the speakers to communicate each other in different localities using public telephone links. Participants of the conference located in different geographical distance areas can discuss issues by using their terminals that are linked together viz the telecommunication network.
In recent years, big business organizations are using teleconferencing method to conduct business meetings with the concerned executives who are geographically scattered all over a region. For instance, a firm having a chain of branch offices offers a network for teleconferencing service. The members or participants can go their local branch and participate,and interact in discussion with the speaker at other branches. It may be mentioned that an alternative of computer conferencing is teleconferencing. An electronic linkage of geographically scattered people is no doubt an oral communication through a medium but without the presence of persons. The advantage of face to face conversion cannot be obtained from teleconferencing which cannot replace them. Body movements , facial expressions which also communicate feelings,attitudes etc. cannot be seen with teleconferencing perfectly. But on the other hand, teleconferencing offers a number of advantages like :
1. Time is saved.
2. Cost and energy are saved.
3. Travel to distance place to attend conference is avoided.
4. No monotony or fatigue.
5. The work arrangements , facilities, and accommodation is eliminated.